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Stephens became vice-president of the Confederate States of America. The Confederacy used the U. Constitution as a model for its own, with some wording differences and a few changes regarding the executive and judicial branches.

Civil War Facts

The Confederate president would serve for six years with no reelection possibility, but was considered more powerful than his Union counterpart. While the Confederate Constitution upheld the institution of slavery, it prohibited the African slave trade. Davis predicted a long war and requested legislation allowing three-year enlistments. The military affairs office, however, anticipated a short conflict and granted the authority to call up troops for only one year of service.

On March 9, , Davis called up 7, volunteers from five states, joining volunteers in South Carolina. By mid-April, 62, troops were raised and stationed in former Union bases. The city was soon filled with some 1, government members, 7, civil servants, and scores of rowdy Confederate soldiers itching for battle. Several battles took place within the territory, and in , Confederate forces were vanquished from the Arizona Territory, which was claimed as Union and then split into two territories, the second being the New Mexico Territory.

Most of the work of the Confederate government involved trying to wage the Civil War without the appropriate means, a domino effect that sometimes rendered it helpless. In February , Davis was granted the authority to suspend habeas corpus, which he did immediately until July , and to declare martial law, which Davis did many times during the war.

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Problems with adequately arming the troops, as well as getting supplies to them, hampered war efforts. The brief one-year enlistment also caused problems because as the war dragged on, rates of volunteering and re-enlistment fell. Davis was soon forced to make military service mandatory for all able-bodied males between 18 and 35 years old. Later exemptions were made for owners of 20 slaves or more. Regardless, Union troops radically outnumbered the Confederate troops.

W. E. B. Du Bois, Black agency and the slaves’ Civil War | International Socialist Review

The draft created a deficit in civilian manpower to police the slave population. States created separate courts to try slaves because of elevated disobedience levels. Paranoia rose, and some hoped to remedy it through conscripting slaves into military service. There was also a severe shortage of white workers. Out of need, the Confederacy employed both free and enslaved blacks at a higher rate during the war, using blacks to support the troops with services and by working in hospitals as nurses and orderlies. State governors found themselves continually in conflict with Davis about government overreach challenging their sacred states rights, especially federal conscription laws.

Civil War Facts

The military exacerbated the situation: As the war dragged on, some troops prowled the countryside to rob civilians. Others rounded up civilians for random often unfounded infractions, infuriating local authorities. The federal government reflected this chaos. Davis saw his authority repeatedly challenged, almost facing impeachment. Davis feuded regularly with Vice-President Stephens, bickered with generals, often had to reconstruct his cabinet and faced repeated backlashes from previously supportive newspapers.

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The chaos in government spread outward. Usually written by an individual, but sometimes compiled by a committee, these books were published after the war to document what actually happened. While some battle and war narratives are included, the focus was primarily on the individual rather than on regimental action.

Additional contents include rosters and muster lists containing the names of those killed, wounded and missing in action. All Union regiments are represented. Request a Free Trial for your Organization. Individuals with personal subscriptions must login at accessible.

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Browse Search. Connect with Accessible Archives on Twitter, Facebook, or Linkedin to stay up to date on news and blog posts or get our latest blog posts by email. Accessible Archives Inc. They were married the following spring, when he graduated from Newton Theological. They had one son together. After graduation, Williams was ordained as a Baptist minister. He held several pastorates, including the historic Twelfth Baptist Church of Boston. Williams served a pastorate in Washington, DC. While there, with support from many of the leaders of his time, such as Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison , Williams founded The Commoner, a weekly journal.

This had no relation to William Jennings Bryan 's later publication of the same title. Williams published eight issues. Williams moved with his family to Cincinnati , Ohio , where he continued as a preacher. In addition, he studied law under Alphonso Taft father of President William Howard Taft , reading the law with an established firm. He passed the bar.

He became the first African American elected to the Ohio state legislature, serving one term from Cincinnati for to According to his biographer, historian John Hope Franklin , he offended his constituents by offering a bill that "threatened to deny members of a local African Methodist church the right to bury their dead in what was becoming an exclusive suburb" of the river city.

Although the bill died in committee, Williams was not re-elected and his state political career abruptly ended. He turned to practicing law. Franklin noted Williams' ability to persist and pick up new endeavors after he had closed off some fields. In the last weeks of his administration, President Chester A. Arthur nominated Williams as "Minister Resident and Consul General" to Haiti and Santo Domingo in early , but he was not confirmed, as he was not considered qualified. Thompson to the positions soon after taking office in In , Williams was given an honorary doctorate of law by Simmons College of Kentucky , a historically black college , where he spoke at a commencement ceremony.

See below [2]. Williams' most substantial achievement was as an historian. It is considered to be the first overall history of African Americans, showing their participation and contributions from the earliest days of the colonies. In , Williams arranged to go to Europe to write articles as a representative of S.