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Creole voanouvel. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share via Email. Print this page. A photo of the famed ad for Virginia Slims cigarettes. Written By Catherine Maddux. As the national SDS organization was struggling with dissent within its own ranks, individual women leaders subsumed the feminist critique of the organization into a broader analysis of women in American society. In March of , Naomi Jaffe and Bernadine Dohrn argued powerfully against the pervasive sexism in mainstream consumer culture while also taking aim at the movement that defined women through men:.

Over the past few months, small groups have been coming together in various cities to meet around the realization that as women radicals we are not radical women—that we are unfree within the Movement and in personal relationships, as in the society at large. We realize that women are organized into the Movement by men and continue to relate to it through men. We find that the difficulty women have in taking initiative and in acting and speaking in a political context is the consequence of internalizing the view that men define reality and women are defined in terms of men.

We are coming together not in a defensive posture to rage at our exploited status vis a vis men, but rather in the process of developing our own autonomy. Women in SDS and throughout the antiwar movement began to challenge the premise that a broad ranging attack on American capitalism and imperialism would mitigate the need for ending male supremacy. Women often had to choose between continuing alliances with men and the need to raise critical issues that the movement had failed to acknowledge. Coming from comrades in the struggle to end the war and create a new society, this was painful indeed.

Activist Ellen Willis reflected on this experience:. Men have oppressed me. Men must take responsibility for their actions instead of blaming them on capitalism. And, yes, that means you.

In this instance, the woman veteran of the movement is willing to go her own way to avoid becoming oppressed by the very activists who had so recently struggled with her in the antiwar cause that, for so many men, was defined in specifically masculine terms:. Your reluctance to be close and open when all is said and done indicates that you make a rather limited socialist after all.

Refusing vulnerability you are refusing friendship. Refusing acts of sharing you seem so sadly alone. Long ago, earlier feminists wanted to be tough like you. Only fifty years later did they realize how they had assumed the role of the oppressor. That is why you are an enemy. For example, in February of , women at Berkeley held a rally and protest at the Army induction center in Oakland four days after two army nurses were killed in a helicopter crash in Vietnam.

As we analyze the position of women in capitalist society and especially in the United States we find that women are in a colonial relationship to men and we recognize ourselves as part of the Third World. Women, because of their colonial relationship to men, have to fight for their own independence.

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This fight for our own independence will lead to the growth and development of the revolutionary movement in this country. Only the independent woman can be truly effective in the larger revolutionary struggle. We seek the liberation of all human beings. The struggle for liberation of women must be part of the larger fight for human freedom. We recognize the difficulty our brothers will have in dealing with male chauvinism and we will assume full responsibility in helping to resolve the contradiction. We love you! Women remained active in SDS and other movement groups, but by , the die had been cast for activist women who perceived that the tension between mainstream movement participation and articulating grievances of their own could no longer be resolved.

Women who experienced this tension were not content to accept the notion that their personal concerns were any less important because they spoke to issues of self-esteem, sexuality, and female equality.

We Will Be Heard: Women's Struggles for Political Power in the United States

The persistent focus on the personal as the starting point for political action drove a wedge between traditional movement activists and new feminists who refused to accept the hierarchies of the left any more than they were willing to accept hierarchy and patriarchy in society at large. By the s, feminists could find themselves as estranged theoretically from their former comrades in the movement as from mainstream society.

According to Ellen Willis,. The war and the atmosphere in the United States in the late s brought out an activist impulse, even an imperative to act, among women who might otherwise have pursued careers and lives with few political reference points. In , Jane Fonda was hardly the American woman most likely to become active in the struggle to end the Indochina War. Inspired by the intractability of the war, Fonda sought ways to support the peace movement.

In February of , she helped to organize three days of war crimes testimony sponsored by Vietnam Veterans Against the War called the Winter Soldier Investigation. Hoping to provide an alternative to the apolitical entertainment offered by more traditional Hollywood stars, Fonda declared:.

We Will Be Heard: Women's Struggles for Political Power in the United States

It has become disconcerting for many of us in Hollywood to see that Bob Hope, Martha Raye, and other companies of their political ilk have cornered the market and are the only entertainers allowed to speak to soldiers in this country and in Vietnam. Apparently, the army brass agreed. General John J. Women in the military utilized the emerging GI antiwar press as a vehicle for expressing frustration with the military establishment, dissatisfaction with their treatment in the military, and the political and humanitarian necessity of ending the war.

Many of the articles and letters written by women and supportive men stressed that women were treated as inferior soldiers because of pervasive sexism in all branches of the service. Women complained of sexual harassment and an inability to gain promotions. World headlines condemned this callous example of unwarranted police repression against unarmed Africans.

Predictably, and almost immediately, there was a government crackdown of all black opposition. At a single stroke the national liberation movement was stopped temporarily, at least in its tracks and the Congress Alliance was plunged into disarray. The government declared a state of emergency, hundreds of arrests were made and in April the ANC and newly-formed PAC were banned as lawful political parties.

Both organizations were driven underground. By mid Congress leaders had come to the realization that non-violent methods of resistance had failed and would have to be abandoned; the ANC and PAC both established military wings - Umkhonto we Sizwe and Poqo respectively.

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  6. The new strategy was to turn to violence, to try to harm the economy and to gain publicity for the fact that the ANC was still a viable organization despite being banned. It had been conceived on the s model of resistance and it was doomed to flounder in the s. It had not been banned but its ally, the ANC, had been driven underground.